CYA 2019 – Everything’s a Genre

This post is the third (and final) in a series, feeding-back from my attendance at the 2019 CYA Conference. Click the links to read last week’s post with the CYA notes, or a sum-up of the PB Bootcamp. This week we cover ‘Everything’s a Genre’.

Opening Panel

Lucy Bell (Pantera Press)
Considers all adult commercial fiction and issue-based non-fiction

Anna Solding (Midnight Sun)
Chasing international sales at Bologna/London book fairs

Danielle Binks (Jacinta di Mase Agency)
Mostly what they do is the contract stuff. Yes submissions/quality control.
Join QWC and ASA.

Carolyn Martinez (Hawkeye Publishing)
Recommends ‘On Writing’ – Steven King

Angela Meyer (Echo – Aus imprint of Bonnier Books UK)
Particularly fond of crime fiction and historical fiction

Sophie Hamley (Hachette)
Mostly open to adult submissions
Involved with mentorship programs

Julia Carlomagno (Black Ink – Quarterly Essay)
Non-fiction that contributes to national conversation. Includes history.
Also small literary fiction list.
Not a lot of YA.

Belinda Murrell – The Reality of publishing from an author’s perspective

Despite the doom and gloom, more books are being published than ever. (Nielsen Book Scan)
Book industry was worth 1.18billion dollars in Australia in 2018
CYA 29% of the total market, with 28million children’s book sales in Australia.
5000 new titles in Australia (kids/YA/adult) in 2019

Big W is closing 30% of its Bookstores

(Shared during other sessions …
Market down 2.6% but children’s writing up 1.2%.
Middle grade has been booming for 4-5yrs. Is doing really well.
YA is down. Publishers trying to bring YA down to your middle grade.
Stand alone beautiful middle grade.)

Picture books are becoming cheaper to produce.
Heart, hope and humour – PBs
Penguin Random noted that 80% of submissions received are for PB alone.
YA is currently the toughest field to get published in.

Bologna – (April 2019) Publishers actively seeking – trends for next year:

  • diversity
  • #metoo
  • feminism
  • teenage thriller
  • gritty realism (YA dark/edgy contemporary issues – refugees, homelessness)
  • friendship & kindness
  • environment
  • girl power

Growth of micro publishers and self-publishing:

  • 2,200 micro publishers in Aus (1 book/yr) – independent authors
  • 1300 small (2-5)
  • 200 mid (5-100)
  • 28 large (100+ titles)

Big Publishers – Belinda’s experience

  • The Top 5 have 72% of total market, Penguin Random (20%)
  • They are publishing new and aspiring authors.
  • Big publishers have efficient distributions
  • More money for marketing/promotion/support (bookmarks/standings/banners/bunting/craft activities/crafts/merchandising, etc …)
  • Publishers are not the enemy! They are passionate, kind – and don’t get paid much.

Writing fulltime:

  • Belinda suggested you need 10 books to make a living from writing.
  • Children’s sales are driven by school visits.
  • Things to do to promote your books:
  • Teacher notes
  • Character Profiles
  • Recipes
  • Activities
  • Things you didn’t know about me

Christine Well – Bringing History to Life

What is historical fiction?

  • A fictional account of real events
  • journey of a real person from the past
  • fictionalised characters against background of real events
  • fictionalised characters in a fictionalised past
  • speculative fiction – with a thread running through the past

There are no historical fact police.

Developing a Story Idea:

  • Write about something that evokes emotion in you
  • Use a real person as inspiration
  • Sticky facts – quirky twists to bring to the narrative
  • personal interests, eg; medicine, law, parenthood, women’s rights
  • write a brief synopsis
  • read round the era / test/refine

Immersion: (Gaining confidence in the period)
Traditional research … (Primary sources/secondary sources)
Watch movies/documentaries to immerse yourself in the era. Use it as an idea spark , then VERIFY through research. History texts don’t bring in textures/aromas/etc …
Read fiction and plays that were written AT the time!
Think about social class, region, background , personal history, eras before and after the ‘present’ of the story. (Manners and morals)

Questions to anchor your writing:

  • Who are you writing for?
  • What is wonderful about this era?
  • What’s frightening about the era?
  • What’s romantic? What will heighten romantic conflict?
  • What is fascinating?
  • What has not changed since this time?
  • Is this the right historical period for you story and your voice?

Characters are key! Write strong, vital characters with agency.
Leave out the bits people skip.

Edwina Shaw – Writing Memoir

Focus it around some segment of life
What is the central question – to propel the reader through.

What is this story about?
What is this story really about?
What is this story really about?
(Ask it three times – to get to the heart of the story)

When you start writing – just start writing.
When rewriting, look for the shape/theme.
Think in scenes. Showing – and a little bit of telling.
Characters – and you are one of them.
Dialogue doesn’t have to be exact. The gist …
Doesn’t have to be chronological. You can reorganise structure to give narrative drive.

Formula for Narrative Drive:  Suspense = Hope + Fear

If others are involved, you need to get them to read it as well.

 

Allison Paterson – Writing Non Fiction in the Adult World


Lesson One: Know your audience.
What do you want this to be?

Elements of Non-fiction

  • Facts – about real people, things events and places.
  • Has a major idea
  • Contains aids to reading – glossary, headings, maps, charts, diagrams,
  • Come in sub-genres, but contain elements borrowed from fiction.
  • Purpose is to inform, entertain – and perhaps convince

* some narrative nonfiction blurs the line between fact and fiction.
(Author may create dialogue based on fact.)

Your idea:

What is your purpose? Inform/entertain/persuade/all
Who is your audience?
Competitors – unique selling points?

Finding the inspiration/detail and emotion – the research:

  • Listening/observing/conversations
  • Writing – journal
  • reading nonfiction and fiction – immersing yourself
    reflecting
  • TV documentaries/movies – can bring settings to life
  • indulge your writing. Go there. Engage your sensors – visualise, imagine, walk the scene take in sounds and scents, take photos – interpretative boards
  • Google: books, maps, You/Tube
  • real people – oral histories
  • libraries – librarians love the thrill of the hunt!

Meticulously record your sources – to verify.
Know when to stop researching and start writing. (That will then drive further research.)

Apply the Elements of Fiction:

  • Engage the reader. Hook.
  • Plan – bend reality into a story arc – develop a captivating plot.
  • How do I end?
  • Think of the people in your writing as characters.
  • Develop your own unique voice.

The challenge for a nonfiction writer is to achieve a poetic precision using the documents of truth but somehow to make people and places spring to life as if the reader was in their presence.

 Simon Schama

Closing Panel – Chaired by Tina Marie Clarke

“Where on the spectrum of genre does it fit? How is your manuscript unique? What is your particular angle or hook?” (Julia Carlmagno – Black Inc)

“Genre is a reader promise which we writers have to fulfill.” (Amy Andrews)

“Genre is a slippery concept – even for those who write it.” (Isobelle Carmody)

“Genre targets readers and ensures the reader is satisfied. But a good book is more important than genre. Write a good book.” (Lucy Bell)

“Know the rules, the trope, so you can break them.” (Lucy Bell)


For some months I’ve been pondering what to call my Antarctic verse novels. I’m quite okay with them sitting across numerous genres – actually think that’s part of their uniqueness. But CYA has confirmed that they are indeed historical non-fiction verse novels. The name doesn’t changes the work! But it is good to know that’s where they sit on the spectrum.

I am grateful for the Bundaberg RADF Grant that made attendance at all these conference events possible. The networking and knowledge gained far exceeded my expectations (as did the notes and blog posts!) and has given renewed purpose, passion and direction in my writing. It was a privilege to represent the Bundaberg region at the conference, and feedback information via these blog posts, and the session at Bundaberg library, last weekend.

Thank-you also to Tina and the crew at CYA. I appreciate the time you all put into organising this conference and competition. With three competition wins over the years, and numerous placings, your conference has had a significant impact on my writing career – and my confidence. I value the friendships as much as the knowledge gained. Connections made at that first conference are still strong, and I wonder where I would be, without the impact of the CYA on my writing life.

Heidi has the Poetry Friday link-up for us today, so click over to my juicy little universe for lots of fresh-squeezed poetry goodness!

CYA 2019 – Conference & NEWS!

Part Two – CYA Conference Notes

Following on from last week’s post about the three-day CYA Event recently in Brisbane…

The actual CYA Conference started with a buzz! Competitions winners were announced and I was thrilled (and even relieved) to find that my trio of rhyming PB manuscripts won the published author competition, judged by Luna Soo (Hardie Grant) and Alyson O’Brien (Little Hare). A CYA win is a massive injection of confidence and affirmation, and I was so thrilled! It was wonderful to later have time one-on-two with Luna and Alyson, discussing my work, and hearing their thoughts/feedback. (They are both so lovely!) Thank-you to Alyson and Luna for their belief in my work, and to the whole tribe of CYA organisers and volunteer judges who bring this competition to fruition!

Photo credit: Peter Allert/CYA Conference

From there I went to my first editorial one-on-one, which was insightful, but also discouraging. It was a story I heard from a number of publishers throughout the conference – and have heard often before – about a reluctance to publish in rhyme. Rhyme is lost in translation – so it’s hard to ‘sell’ to Sales & Marketing. But kids (and parents!) love rhyme! And there are a lot of English-speaking countries in our world! And having written rhymed and unrhymed picture books, I know the time and tenacity taken to get rhyme right! I loooong for a Sales & Marketing department who will love (and value!) rhyming PBs like I do.

Then onto the sessions of the day – when I wasn’t popping out for one-on-one editorial interviews…

Dee White – Pitch Perfect

I have had the benefit of Dee’s attention to details in pitching. She knows her stuff – and nails it!

Elements of an Effective Pitch:

  • Hooks the reader
  • Connects the reader with MC
  • Hints at what’s to come
  • Sets context – genre/readership
  • Shows where it might sit in a bookshop / comparative titles

Do’s and Don’ts

  • Don’t introduce too many characters.
  • Hint at story arc.
  • Don’t try to tell the whole story – MC, story problem & why it’s getting worse.
  • Include themes.
  • Clear & coherent
  • Why it’s unique and appealing to readers
  • Establish personal connection – why you and why now?
  • Be proud/passionate
  • Be prepared for questions
  • Practise your pitch
  • Be prepared to take on feedback
  • Try not to read too much if asked to read a sample. (Start at the start – and edit the text so that it is punchier than the actual start to the novel.)

Photo credit: Peter Allert/CYA Conference

Belle Brooks – Self-Publishing
This was the most enabling presentation I have seen about self-publishing. I took pages of notes, and started to see how it could be a viable option for me and a number of manuscripts I believe in, if I run out of options (or heart) with traditional publishers. Much of my notes would only make sense in context, but here are some takeaways…

• You must have a professional editor, who hears your voice and doesn’t try to change it – but helps you bring the story out.
• Don’t fluff your book with ‘content’.
• Know your strengths. Accept your faults.
• Not everyone loves your stuff. And that’s ok. Everyone judges.
• There’s a market for every book.
• Own your voice. Own your style. You are YOU.
• When you get bigger, Amazon works harder for you – because you make them money.
• Always work on your backmatter … Leading them where they need to go. Constantly leading them to your best work.
• Three stars is a good review.

Belle’s tips on blurbs:

  • A blurb is critical to success – You can change your blurb on platforms.
  • Appeal to your reader – not yourself. (Belle writes the blurb before she writes the books – which means there is no temptation to include too much detail.)

Photo credit: Peter Allert/CYA Conference

Isobel Carmody – Writing YA

Isobel spoke freely, with no notes. Some of the gems gleaned:

To write is to be. We are a tapestry of everything we’ve ever written.

  • Or job is not to be constrained, but to stretch out beyond the edges.
  • What do you want to give the world? Nothing.
  • How do I write like a child? The child in me it’s still there. Same for YA.
  • A relief to let go of the adult world.
  • Write to your deep-seated questions.
  • Write about the ideas that are in you!
  • In children’s books, children grow – but they don’t grow up! (Margaret Wild)
  • The choices we make as children/young adults inform the choices we make as adults.
  • Writing is an attempt to believe that humans can get better.
  • Issues books – Approach your craft/subject with a humility. Don’t use it to push an issue.
  • Write your first draft. Then look for themes/issues.
  • Write inwardly. Write the book. Worry about where it lands afterwards.
  • If the story’s not working for you, don’t push through. Step away. Give your mind the fallow times.
  • Editing is an essential part of the creative process. Dig down into it for themes, nuance, etc… Create the sense of reality.
  • If you’ve written deeply from yourself, you will not get bored during editing.
  • Go deep. Into yourself. Into the moment. In your writing.
  • A great book will make it through.

CYA Closing Panel

General Takeaways:

  • Market down 2.6% but children’s writing up 1.2%.
  • Middle grade has been booming for 4-5yrs. Is doing really well.
  • YA is down. Publishers trying to bring YA down to your middle grade.

Alex Adsett (Agent):

  • It’s not an easy industry for author/illustrators. It’s not an easy industry for agents/editors either.
  • Always write what’s in your heart. Let us worry about how to fit it into the market.

Debbie Lee (Ingram – Sparks)

The Bundy Connection!

  • Wherever you’re at, work with professionals.
  • You are a business.

Davina Bell (Affirm Press)

  • Looking for more junior fiction.
  • Trends: girl power / child activism/climate change / diversity

Mary Verney – Sydney office. (Penguin Random House)

  • Lots of buyers are asking for good non fiction for kids.

Lucy Bell (Pantera Press)

  • Has mostly acquired from the slush pile.
  • Looking for activism/climate change. Haven’t published many PBs, but possibilities with non fiction/activism books.

Indie is often a stepping stone. It’s not an us and them. We’re part of the same conduit and can coexist.

Thank-you to the Bundaberg RADF committee that made attendance at all these conference events possible. There is still one day of notes to catch you up on – from the Everything is a Genre day of conference. Tomorrow (Saturday) from 10-11am I will be feeding-back in person at the Bundaberg Library. You can register here.

Margaret is collecting Poetry Friday links a Reflections on the Teche – with a teaspoon and a bit of string.

CYA 2019 – Bootcamp Notes

Part One – Bootcamp

The first weekend in July, with thanks to an RADF Grant from Bundaberg Regional Council, I attended the 14thannual CYA Conference in Brisbane, for authors of Children’s and YA books. I attended the first CYA Conference, in 2006 – and it has grown a lot since then. Not just in numbers, but in duration. This year it transitioned from a one-day conference, to a three-day event – expanding into the adult market, with one day devoted to ‘Everything’s a Genre’ – and writing Bootcamps offered over three days. I am mightily thankful for the Bundaberg Regional Council RADF committee for awarding a grant allowing me to attend the full three days, and meet one-on-one and in small groups with publishers and editors. It was the best professional development I have ever received and I am sincerely, heartfelt thankful!

On Friday, I took part in the inaugural bootcamp – authors working with an editor in small groups to gain feedback on a manuscript; editing suggestions, and opportunity to rework the manuscript, to then receive further feedback. I was in a picture book group with Lisa Berryman, children’s publisher at Harper Collins. Over the course of the day, we shared in our small groups, but also came together for two large panel discussions, hearing insights from all the editors in response to questions posed by ‘head ranger’, Dee White.

Friday’s Bootcamp editors: Clare Hallifax (Omnibus), Elise Jones, (A&U), Lisa Berryman (Harper Collins), Kristy Bushnell (independent), Maryann Ballantyne (Will Dog), Sarah Davis (Walker) and Lauren Clarke (independent).

DW: What makes you want to read further?

CH: I need to fall in love with a character. (Author voice is character, as well.)
LB: Very much the idea – setting/genre.
EJ: A book with heart.
LC: Proactive characters
SD: Narrative. Storytelling in an image. Potentiality. What happened and what is going to happen?
MB: Always looking for the bigger story.
KB: Character and personality onto the page. The emotion. Show (don’t tell) straight away.

“Voice is a writer who is in control of his craft.”

There was some discussion about author voice. And what makes it distinctive. And if it could be taught/developed. Someone shared a Paul McDermot quote, “Most things are fixable – except voice.” Nearly everything about this discussion sparked thoughts of poetry, for me. You want to develop your voice? I say play with poetry!

Other Takeaways:

SD: Your first idea isn’t usually your best. It’s too obvious.
SD: Write an evocative text that creates atmosphere.
EJ: Place the reader – at the start of the book and at the start of each section break.
CH: Write a story – not a list. And read it aloud.
KB: Know your characters and your problems and feed them in as necessary. (Not TMI too soon.)
LC: Set the scene and give need-to-know. And a hint of tension. Peril or dissatisfaction.
KB: Personified settings. Sets the mood and tone of story. An emotional connection. (And again I was thinking … poetry!)
?: Stage directions moving the characters around. Write it subtly. (Writer in control, with the help of their publisher and editor.)

On Submissions:

LB: Stating similar titles is helpful for Sales & Marketing – and how to pitch it. Compare for things like tone/feelings.
MB: Doesn’t want illustration notes.
LB: Illustrator notes are often helpful/necessary.
CH: If the narrative hinges on illustrations, include notes.
LB: Likes an elevator pitch – the essence of the story, like a mantra.
LB: Feedback is a gift. It’s not personal. It’s not about you.

Brittany, Kat & Meredith – the Dorothea Mackellar Poetry Awards connection.

Friday Night was the first of the Networking Dinners, with kidlit creatives converging from all over the country. Networking is so important! And also so much fun! I did a double take when I thought I recognised the face across from me at dinner… and first name matched… and indeed, it was Brittany, Poetry Awards Officer for the Dorothea Mackellar Poetry Awards, who I have had much email/phone contact with in recent months, in my role as judge. (Another reason why I have been very busy of late – reading almost 5000 poems and judging across four categories! Almost finalised. And what a task – a joyful task – it was!) Brittany and I had never met, (had seen photos) and needless to say, we each had no idea the other would be at CYA! Also in attendance was the Secondary School’s judge, Meredith Costain.

Day One done! Watch for more blog posts to follow, including … my exciting news!

If you’re in the Bundaberg Region, I will be sharing fast facts from CYA in a one hour session at Bundaberg library, on Saturday 27th July, at 10am. I’d love you to join me!

For now, head across to Carol’s Corner and muscle up on poetry… or melt on puppy love. Thanks for hosting Poetry Friday today, Carol, and sharing Rooney (and your poem) with us.

KidLitVic – Chapter / Middle Grade / Young Adult

Sharing notes on Chapter, Middle Grade and Young Adult, taken at KidLitVic 2017.

Chapter & Middle Grade Panel

Panel:  Paul Collins (Ford St), Jane Pearson (Text), Clare Forster (Agent – Curtis Brown), Suzanne O’Sullivan (Lothian Hachette)

  • Write with passion first. Then think about the age of your main character/protagonist.
  • Consensus seems to be that once the reader reaches the 10yo mark, they’re reaching for YA. (Is YA really written with 10yo readers in mind?)
  • Clare Forster looks at story, characters, voice, subject – the edge authors might have. Most importantly the big picture of the author’s career – not a book.
  • Series is potentially a means to sell more books – so has that selling point for Marketing. ‘When kids find something they love, they’re really keen for more and more.’ (Jane Pearson)
  • A major publisher can really push the marketing behind a series – but for smaller publishers it is more of a risk.
  • Clare Forster – Always remember the investment made by the publisher.
  • No matter how fantastic your idea, the thing is always your ability to write it. (Suzanne)
  • What’s unique. What captures your imagination? Your heart?
  • Series Proposal – What publishers expect to receive as a minimum before they can make the decision.
    1) Full manuscript for first book
    2) Outlines of subsequent books. (A second written book would be great – but not essential.)
    3) Jane Pearson would add that a projection of timeline is also good. To ensure that books will capture their market. Readers are growing up. May grow out of the market if the books don’t roll out in a timely fashion. In six months, good books can be forgotten.

Continue reading

KidLitVic – Illustration & Picture Books

Sharing notes on Illustration and Picture Books, taken at KidLitVic 2017.

Illustration Panel

Panel: Melissa Keil (Five Mile Press), Michelle Madden (Penguin), Sarah Mummé (Lake Press), Christina Pase (Windy Hollow)

  • Postcards (at conferences, etc) are lovely. But a link is always a good thing to forward on to others. Need to be able to show it around – at acquisitions, etc. Digital is great.
  • Greeting cards are a way to get your work out there.
  • Michelle loves to see loads of stuff. Consistency is huge – to develop a character and be consistent across the pages. It’s good to see what you can do – different styles (as long as it is strong, and done well) – but consistency is important.
  • Melissa: Colour palette, characterisation, line-work – something that’s really unique.
    A vaiety of styles for a range of products.
  • Sarah: It’s very personal
    May fight for it, if she can see potential, with a really good brief, and a little bit of work.
  • Christina – literary picture books
    If she really loves it – or has something to fill the brief.
    Likes to know/see if they can draw people – because that’s a really difficult thing! (Show them in all different poses and emotions, in your portfolio.)
    Technical skills are vital during the process – to see an illustration from the back angle. Or from a different character’s perspective. It’s almost like illustrators are working with a film screen, not a flat piece of paper.

Continue reading

CYA Notes – Agents and Editors

IMG_1547

I attended rich and varied sessions at the 2014 CYA. And I’ve got notes on all of them. But I thought I’d share these little gems, since everyone always wants to know what publishers are looking for!

Katrina Lehman – Penguin

  • Not just theme. It’s the magic also.
  • Multiple submissions are fine nowadays. Submit to multiple publishers because the lead time is so long. Send to all the publishers you can!
  • 5 editors at Penguin. They do try to mentor an author each, each year.
  • Personally, Katrina Loves Fantasy. Dystopian, supernatural, dark fairies.
  • Junior Fiction Series.
  • Trilogy is hard because publishers need to commit a lot of money to a trilogy. Try to complete it in one book!
  • Don’t send presents. (Everyone affirmed this, and some shared horror stories of messy (and expensive) gifts they’d received.)

 

Karen Tayleur – Five Mile Press

  • Very early 0 – 6 & Adults
  • Early learning, picture books & novelty books.
  • ‘If anyone has a great idea for novelty, we’re the one you come to.’
  • ‘What I’m looking for is picture books, really. I’m just looking for picture books.’
  • ‘Picture books are the hardest thing to do, so if you don’t have a strong will, leave now.’
  • Collaboration of ideas.
  • Takes email submissions.
  • Six month waiting list.
  • MENTION if you attended CYA – to jump up the pile.
  • ‘Never say never. We (FMP) are doing naught to six. But if it’s so amazing, we might look at it, anyway. (But at least acknowledge you know what our style is.)’
  • Happy for you to check in via email after a couple of months to see how things are going.
  • Reading submissions is outside of 9 – 5. We get to read your work in our time. But it’s worth it, because we get to read some beautiful stuff.

 

Leonie Tyle – Tyle & Bateson Publishing

  • Publishing Poetry and YA (In partnership with Catherine Bateson)
  • Write from the heart. It’s the indefinable that highlights your writing. It has to sparkle/shine of the page. The language has to be lyrical.
  • Offering agency representation for picture books and YA.
  • The world’s your oyster.

 

Suzanne O’Sullivan – Lothian Hachette

  • Lothian is the Australian imprint for Hachette childrens.
  • Hooks;

1)  humour
2) sense of character. As author and illustrator you need to show a sense of character.
3) Stories where stuff happens. A lot of action. Not description. I want action.

  • The number 1, 2, 3, 4 … thing I look for is ‘damn good writing.’
  • Kids are the only readers who are more important than editors.
  • Keen to develop ongoing relationships with authors.
  • Work out what your strongest area is and then deal with that. Find your niche and stick to it to build a name and profile. 

 

Rochelle Manners – Wombat Books / Rhiza Press 

  • Produce stories you’ll want to share – to pick up and read over and over again.
  • Family oriented – not too edgy.
  • If the message is the main thing, it won’t work.
  • Wombat Books – picture books
  • Rhiza Press – Readers 14 +

 

Sue Whiting – Walker Books

  • Produce quality books.
  • Stories with heart. Quirky characters. Unique voice.
  • Do everything you can to work on your craft. Make your story sing!
  • The kind of author/illustrator I’d like to work with. Without YOU we don’t exist. WE NEED YOU! We need authors/illustrators to exist as editors.
  • ‘The Real Deal’ – You don’t always have to agree with what they suggest. Know your stuff.

 

Alex Adsettt – Agent

  • Now also looking at middle grade fiction/chapter books. Has one PB author. Blew me away and knocked me off my feet.
  • Wants everything that’s all been said, because they’re the people she’s submitting your work to.
  • Don’t write to a trend. The minute you do, you aren’t writing from your heart. AND you will miss the trend! Making it the hardest thing to publish.
  • DIgital submissions. Don’t use comic sans/coloured fonts. DON’T write the cover letter from the POV of your character.

 

Sue Whiting later took a workshop talking specifically about endings – and I’m so glad she did, because I know from my own writing, and critiquing/judging others, it’s the ending that’s the hardest to nail!

 

Endings Matter (Sue Whiting)

  • Your opening will sell this book, but it’s your climax & ending that will sell your next.
  • Endings are your gift as an author to your readers.
  • Readers may not remember what the ending was, but they will remember how they felt.

Common faults;

  1. Rushed ending – runs out of steam
  2. Flat ending – So what?
  3. Never-ending ending – Cut the last three chapters.
  4. Random ending – Off on a tangent
  5. Several-endings ending (Closely related to Never-ending. Cut. Cut. Cut.)
  6. Dangling ending – Doesn’t answer all the Qs
  7. Lame or disappointing ending – A letdown.

How to Nail Your Ending;

  • Lay sound foundations in the beginning to create a satisfying resolution.
  • Know the problem.
  • What drives your story?
  • Know in a nutshell what your story is about.
  • Threads/themes/plot lines should be linked to protagonist achieving (or not) their goal.